This will require a bit of coding. The best way to do this with the use of query paramters. You'll need to add some query paramters to the end of each of your links. Then, on the landing page, check the query paramaters (which should have different values depending on which link you clicked) and display the content based on the vlaues in the query string.
If I'm understanding your question correctly, you want links on your site to dynamically change depending on the domain name of the environment you're in?
To do this you can replace any hard coded links with the home_url() function.
So you would change references to links from http://192.168.0.1/your/path/here
to <?php home_url(/your/path/here); ?>
If you're trying to link the image to the page in the post editor you can click on the image and then click the link icon to set the target.
You can do the same thing in HTML (in the editor in source view), in a plugin, or in a theme like this:
<img src="/link/to/your/image" />
esc_html__ is a translation API, specifically it's equivalent to this:
$var = esc_html( __( ... ) );
Note that __( is not a language construct, it's a WordPress function.
Your problem is that esc_html escapes your HTML so that its safe to render as text. Swap it for wp_kses_post, and remove the __ function, you don't want html inside translation strings