Is there a way to upload images to multiple folders in the media library without using a plugin. This is to create file paths to enhance SEO for an online store. I would like to have the URL show category folder names instead of longer hyphenated filenames. At the moment I can only create 1 path to upload to.
Welcome to WPSE. Unfortunately no, that is not possible.
Depending on your Media settings files uploaded to the Media Library either go directly to the Uploads directory or are organized into month- and year-based subdirectories within Uploads.
You'll need to find and use some existing plugin, or create one of your own, to achieve other structure.