I hope you all having a great day. I'm developing a video player plugin with custom shortcodes and stuff but I'm having a problem with the shortcode render. Currently, my shortcode content is rendered with echo which works fine but it doesn't render inside the page content so I have to change it to return method somehow but it has foreach loops and if else statements inside it so I can't just do return '<ul> '.foreach($x as $s){}.' </ul> '; and stuff, do you guys know a workaround for this? I've also tried to place everything inside a function and tried to render it inside return like this: return ' '.renderdata().' '; which works but again it doesn't render inside the content.

Here's my complete shortcode function

function vc_playlist_shortcode( $atts = array() ) {

    // add_action('wp_head', 'deregister_scripts');
    // add_action('wp_enqueue_scripts', 'deregister_scripts');
    // add_action('wp_footer', 'deregister_scripts');
    // get the shortcode attribute value
     'id' => ''
    ), $atts));

    $playlistdata = get_post_meta( $id, 'vc_playlist_data', true );

    // Filter the urls in playlist data and assign it to an array
    $playlisturls = array_filter($playlistdata, function($val){
        return filter_var($val, FILTER_VALIDATE_URL);  
    // rebase the assigned array
    $counter = 0;
    $rebasedurls = array();

    foreach ($playlisturls as $key => $value) {
        $rebasedurls[$counter] = $value;
    // trim the 'https://vimeo.com/' from the values and keep the ID only
    //$videoIDs = preg_replace('/[^0-9]/', '', $rebasedurls);

    function videostatuschecker($x){
        $unlockedvideos = get_user_meta(wp_get_current_user()->ID, 'vc_unlocked_videos', false);

        if (in_array($x, $unlockedvideos)){
            return 'unlocked';  
            return 'locked';
    // Serve the first video URL to browser so we can access it in our JS function
    echo '<script type="text/javascript">var vc_firstvideo = "'.$rebasedurls[0].'"</script>';
    echo '<div class="vc-video-container">';
    //echo '<div class="vc-plyr" data-plyr-provider="vimeo" data-plyr-embed-id="'.$rebasedurls[0].'"></div>';
    echo '<div id="vc-player"></div>';
    echo '<div class="plyr-playlist-wrapper">';
    echo '<ul class="plyr-playlist">';

    foreach($playlistdata as $data){
        if(! filter_var($data, FILTER_VALIDATE_URL)){   
            echo '<span class="plyr-playlist-chapter-title">'.$data.'</span>'; 
            echo '<li class="">';
            echo '<a class="plyr-playlist-link" href="javascript:void(0);" data-video-url="'. $data .'" data-status="'.videostatuschecker($data).'">';
            echo '<div class="plyr-playlist-thumbnail skeleton"><img class="plyr-miniposter" src="" alt="thumbnail"></div>';
            echo '<span class="plyr-playlist-title skeleton"><span></span></span>';
            echo '</a>';
            echo '</li>';

    echo '</ul>';
    echo '</div>';
    echo '</div>';
    echo '<div class="vc-meta-container">'; 
        echo '<button class="fav-video-button" data-video-url="'.$rebasedurls[0].'">Zu Favoriten hinzufügen</button>';
        echo '<div class="autoplay-container"><span class="autoplay-title">Auto Play</span> <div class="toggly-container"> <input type="checkbox" id="autoplay-toggle"> <label class="toggly-label" for="autoplay-toggle"><i class="toggly"></i></label> </div></div>';
    echo '</div>';

    //return '';
add_shortcode('vc_playlist', 'vc_playlist_shortcode'); 

Any help is much appreciated, thank you.

EDIT: I was able to handle the problem with PHP Output Buffering, thanks to WordPress Codex.


function my_shortcode() {
    ?> HTML Here, you can also use foreach loops and stuff it works <?php
    return ob_get_clean();

Good to hear that you managed to solve the problem already. Here's a few examples on how you could also return html from a shortcode.

As you already found out, you can use ob_start() and ob_get_clean() to buffer the html. Inside it you can echo the markup or drop out of PHP and write plain HTML.

function my_shortcode() {
    echo '<div>some HTML here</div>';
    <p>Or outside of the PHP tags</p>
    return ob_get_clean();

If the shortcode is within a theme, then you could also use get_template_part() with the output buffering. This way you can make the shortcode callback a little cleaner looking as the HTML will find its home in a separate file. You can also pass data to the template part, if needed.

function my_shortcode() {
    $template_part_args = array(
        'key' => 'value',
        'optional-name', // use null, if not named
        $template_part_args // access with $args in the template part file
    return ob_get_clean();

As Rup noted in the comments, one option is to concatenate the html to a string variable and then return that.

function my_shortcode() {
    $output = '<div>';
    $output .= 'Some HTML here';
    $output .= '</div>';
    return $output;

Personally, I like to use sprintf() for returning in a similar situation. I think it makes the code clean looking and makes adding escaping a breeze.

function my_shortcode() {
    return sprintf(
        esc_html('Some HTML here'),
        esc_html('Additional nested HTML')

Especially with lists, I tend to build an array of the list items, which are imploded into a string. But you can use the same idea to push various HTML strings into an array, which is turned into one string on output return.

function my_shortcode() {
    $list_items = array();

    foreach ($some_array as $value) {
        $list_items[] = sprintf(

    return '<ul>' . implode('', $list_items) . '</ul>';

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