Nope, unfortunately not... I was looking for the same thing more or less (range by ID instead dates) and since
wp media regenerate supports entering an ID range I thought it should be possible...
# Re-generate all thumbnails that have IDs between 1000 and 2000.
$ seq 1000 2000 | xargs wp media regenerate
Found 4 images to regenerate.
1/4 Regenerated thumbnails for "Vertical Featured Image" (ID 1027).
2/4 Regenerated thumbnails for "Horizontal Featured Image" (ID 1022).
3/4 Regenerated thumbnails for "Unicorn Wallpaper" (ID 1045).
4/4 Regenerated thumbnails for "I Am Worth Loving Wallpaper" (ID 1023).
Success: Regenerated 4 of 4 images.
You could export your posts by date range first via
wp export --dir=/tmp/ --user=admin --post_type=post --start_date=1970-01-01 --end_date=2070-12-31
then open the generated XML-file(s), select all
<wp:post_id>XYZ</wp:post_id> in your editor (like SublimeText or VSCode), get rid of the markup and format the IDs as space-separated list and then use the gathered IDs to bulk delete like this
wp post delete 1001 1009 1028 1030 1044 1050
Very cumbersome, I know... Maybe create an issue over at the according Github-repo and request this feature?