Gutenberg is developed separately https://github.com/WordPress/gutenberg and the latest version currently is
How to find out which version of Gutenberg is included in my WordPress installation?
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You can find the versions in WordPress here with this recently created document: https://developer.wordpress.org/block-editor/principles/versions-in-wordpress/ You weren't alone in wanting to have this information :) As mentioned above, it can be tricky to directly line up versions but this is the closest approximation currently. When WordPress 5.5 is launched, this document will be updated.
edit: (already answered by anne :))
The versions in WordPress page lists which will provide a range. For a release of WordPress core, features from Gutenberg plugin are taken from several different versions.