Sure, you can simply grab a class of the post, and then style it with your own CSS.
The following code is taken from this page of the WordPress Codex:
This function returns all classes of the post, it can appear in home.php and/or in single.php for example.
// PHP single.php template code
<div id="post-<?php the_ID(); ?>" <?php post_class(); ?>>
This HTML/PHP markup in your theme's loop creates the following output:
//HTML Output by WordPress
<div id="post-4564" class="class-name post-4564 post type-post status-publish format-standard hentry category-news">
As you can see, it gives you the class "format-standard". The following classes can be output, depending on the post format:
aside, gallery, link, quote, status, video, audio, chat
So, if you want to style your single.php differently, look these classes and grab them by CSS:
/* CSS */
background: url('images/lonesome-background.jpg')top center no-repeat;
background: url('images/funky-music.jpg')top center no-repeat;
background: url('images/super-wide-gallery.jpg')top center no-repeat;
...and so on
You should have a look at the Codex. Hope this helps.