I've learnt how to internationalize my plugin, but that does not seem to cover documentation (readme.txt), screenshots and banners (assets).
I'd like to present localized versions of those as well, is it feasible?
You can use the translation option via "GlotPress" on each plugin in the official plugin repository. You find all relevant hints in this post of the make blog at wordpress.org.
In short, on each plugin you have a translation link and that give all users the chance to contribute translations.