This might be seen as a corollary of Testing hooks callback.

The issue: I want to test a class which creates a new instance of a My_Notice class defined outside the plugin (let's call it the "Main Plugin").

My unit test knows nothing about My_Notice because it's defined in a third party library (another plugin, to be precise). Therefore, I have these options (as far as I know):

  1. Stub the My_Notice class: hard to maintain
  2. Include the needed files from the third party library: this may work, but I'm making my tests less isolated
  3. Dynamically stub the class: not sure if that's even possible, but it would be very similar to mocking a class, except that it should also create the definition of the same, so the class I'm testing will be able to instantiate it.

The answer from @gmazzap points out that we should avoid creating this sort of dependencies which is something I totally agree. And the idea of creating stub classes doesn't seem good to me: I'd rather include the code of the "Main Plugin", with all the consequences).

However I don't see how can I do otherwise.

Here's an example of the code I'm trying to test:

class My_Admin_Notices_Handler {
    public function __construct( My_Notices $admin_notices ) {
        $this->admin_notices = $admin_notices;

     * This will be hooked to the `activated_plugin` action
     * @param string $plugin
     * @param bool   $network_wide
    public function activated_plugin( $plugin, $network_wide ) {
        $this->add_notice( 'plugin', 'activated', $plugin );

     * @param string $type
     * @param string $action
     * @param string $plugin
    private function add_notice( $type, $action, $plugin ) {
        $message = '';
        if ( 'activated' === $action ) {
            if ( 'plugin' === $type ) {
                $message = __( '%1s Some message for plugin(s)', 'my-test-domain' );
            if ( 'theme' === $type ) {
                $message = __( '%1s Some message for the theme', 'my-test-domain' );
        if ( 'updated' === $action && ( 'plugin' === $type || 'theme' === $type ) ) {
            $message = __( '%1s Another message for updated theme or plugin(s)', 'my-test-domain' );

        if ( $message ) {
            $notice          = new My_Notice( $plugin, 'wpml-st-string-scan' );
            $notice->text    = $message;
            $notice->actions = array(
                new My_Admin_Notice_Action( __( 'Scan now', 'my-test-domain' ), '#' ),
                new My_Admin_Notice_Action( __( 'Skip', 'my-test-domain' ), '#', true ),
            $this->admin_notices->add_notice( $notice );

Basically, this class has a method which will be hooked to activated_plugin. This method builds an instance of a "notification" class, which will be stored somewhere by the My_Notices instance passed to the constructor.

The constructor of the My_Notice class receives two basic arguments (a UID and a "group") and gets some properties set (mind that the same issue is with the My_Admin_Notice_Action class).

How could I make the My_Notice class an injected dependency?

Of course, I could use an associative array, call some action, which is hooked by the "Main Plugin" and which translates that array in the class's arguments, but it doesn't look clean to me.

  • The problem is probably the way you structured your code, and not with how to implement approach A or B, but generic unit testing questions like this are probably better asked at SO. I frankly don't see any problem with testing your code so can't even understand what is the issue you are facing. BTW just because an answer got 30 upvotes doesn't mean that it is the only valid way to do things – Mark Kaplun Jul 25 '16 at 15:49
  • @MarkKaplun I added some clarification about what is the issue with testing this class. I hope this makes more sense. I added the question here, as a follow up of the original one, which is in the same network. Since the issue is very similar to the one posed in the original question, I'm not 100% sure I must move it at SO, but any guidance is very welcome! – Andrea Sciamanna Jul 25 '16 at 15:58
  • 1
    That was different time in which the rules here were different, and the answer is just not a good one. While every word there is true and I agree with it, the whole point of wrting a plugin for wordpress is integrating with it, so testing in isolation gives you very little especially if your code as in the one you show here is relatively trivial. Testing in isolation is great, but testing should also be useful and not just pure. – Mark Kaplun Jul 25 '16 at 16:09

Is object injection really necessary?

To be fully testable in isolation, code should avoid to instantiate classes directly, and inject any object that is needed inside objects.

However, there are at least two exceptions to this rule:

  1. The class is a language class, e.g. ArrayObject
  2. The class is a proper "value object".

No need to force injection for core objects

The first case is easy to explain: it is something embedded in the language so you just assume it works. Otherwise you should also tests any PHP core functions or statement like return

No need to force injection for value object

The second case, is related to the nature of a value object. In facts:

  • it is immutable
  • it has no any possible polymorphic alternative
  • by definition, a value object instance is indistinguishable from another that has same constructor arguments

It means that a value object can be seen as an immutable type on its own, just like, for example, a string.

If some code does $myEmail = 'some.email@example.com' no one is concerned about mocking that string, and in same way, no one should be concerned about mocking a line like new Email('some_name@example.com') (assuming that Email is immutable and possibly final).

For what I can guess from your code, My_Admin_Notice_Action is a good candidate to be / become a value object. But, can't be sure without seeing the code.

I can't say the same of My_Notice, but that's just another guess.

If inject is necessary…

In case the class that is instantiated in another class is not one of the two cases above, that is surely better to inject it.

However, like example in OP, the class to be constructed needs arguments that depends on context.

There's no "one" answer in this case, but different approaches that may be all valid depending on the case.

Instantiation in client code

A simple approach is to separate "objects code" from "client code". Where client code is the code that makes use of objects.

In this way you could test objects code using unit tests, and leave client code testing to functional / integration tests, where you don't have to worry about isoltation.

In your case it will be something like:

add_action( 'activate_plugin', function( $plugin, $network_wide ) {

   $message = My_Admin_Notices_Message( 'plugin', 'activated' );

   if ( $message->has_text() ) {

      $notice = new My_Notice( $plugin, $message, 'wpml-st-string-scan' );
      $notice->add_action( new My_Admin_Notice_Action( 'Scan now', '#' ) );
      $notice->add_action( new My_Admin_Notice_Action( 'Skip', '#', true ) );

      $notices = new My_Notices();
      $notices->add_notice( $notice );

      $handler = new My_Admin_Notices_Handler( $notices );

}, 10, 2);

I made some guesses on your code and write methods and classes that may not exists (like My_Admin_Notices_Message), but the point here is that the closure above contains all client code needed to instantiate and "use" the objects. You can then test your objects in isolation because no one of those objects needs to instantiate other objects, but they all receive necessary instances in constructor or as methods params.

Simplify client code with factories

The approach above may work well for small plugins (or small part of a plugin that can be isolated from the rest of it), but for bigger code bases, using only that approach you may end in big client code in closures which, among other things, is very hard to test and maintain.

In those cases, factories may help you. Factories are objects with the sole scope of creting other objects. Most of the time is good to have specific factories for object of the same type (implementing same interface).

With factories, the code above might look like this:

add_action( 'activate_plugin', function( $plugin, $network_wide ) {

   $notice = $notice_factory->create_for( 'plugin', 'activated' );

   if ( $notice instanceof My_Notice_Interface ) {
      $handler_factory = new My_Admin_Notices_Handler_Factory();
      $handler = $handler_factory->build_for_notices( [ $notice ] );

}, 10, 2);

All the instantiation code is in factories. You can still test factories in isolation, because you need to test that given proper arguments they produce expected classes (or that given wrong arguments they produce expected errors).

And still you can test all the other objects in isolation because no objects needs to create instances, in facts instantiation code is all in factories.

Of course, remember that value objects don't need factories... it would be like create factories for strings...

What if I can't change the code?


Sometimes it is not possible to change the code that instantiates other objects, for different reasons. E.g. code is 3rd party, backward compatiblity, and so on.

In those cases, if is possible to run the tests without loading the classes being instantiated, then you can write some stubs.

Let's assume you have a code that does:

class Foo {

   public function run_something() {
     $something = new Something();

If you are able to run tests without loading the Something class, you can write a custom Something class just for the purpose of testing (a "stub").

It is always better to keep stubs very simple, e.g.:

class Something{

   public function run() {
     return 'I ran'.

When tests run, you can then load the file that contains this stub for Something class (e.g. from tests setUp()) and when the class under tests will instantiate a new Something, you will tests it in isolation, since the setup is very simple and you can create it in a way that by design it does what you expect.

Of course this is not very simple to maintain, but considering that normally you don't unit tests 3rd party code, rarely you need to do this.

Sometimes, though, this is helpful for testing in isolation plugins / themes code that instantiate WordPress objects (e.g. WP_Post).

Mockery overload

Using Mockery (a library to that provides tools for PHP unit tests) you can even avoid to write those stubs. With Mockery "instance mock" (aka "overload") is possible to intercept new instances creation and replace with a mock. This article explains pretty well how to do it.

When class is loaded...

If the code to test has hard dependencies (instantiate classes using new) and there's no possibility to load tests without loading the class that is going to be instantiated there're very small chances to test it in isolation without touching the code (or writing an abstraction layer around it).

However, note that test bootstrap file is often loaded as absolute first thing. So there are, at least, two cases in you can force the loading of your stubs:

  1. Code uses an autoloader. In this case, if you load the stubs before loading the autoloader, then the "real" class is never loaded, because when new is used, the class is already found and autoloader not triggered.

  2. Code checks for class_exists before defining / loading the class. In that case to load the stubs as first thing, will prevent the "real" class to be loaded.

The tricky last resort

When everything else fails, there's another thing you could do to test hard dependencies.

Very often hard dependencies are stored as private variables.

class Foo {

   public function __construct() {
     $this->something = new Something();

   public function run_something() {
     return $this->something->run();

in cases like this, you could replace the hard dependencies with a mock / stub after the instance is created.

This because even private properties can be (quite) easily replaced in PHP. In more than one way, actually.

Without digging into details, I can say that closure binding can be used to do that. I even wrote a library called "Andrew" that can be used for the scope.

Using Andrew (and Mockery) to test the class Foo above, you can do:

public function test_run_something() {

    $foo = new Foo();

    $something_mock = Mockery::mock( 'Something' );
        ->andReturn('I ran.');

    // changing proxy properties will change private properties of proxied object
    $proxy = new Andrew\Proxy( $foo );
    $proxy->something = $something_mock;

    $this->assertSame( 'I ran.', $foo->run_something() );

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