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I want to get category id by name so I am using get_term_by

This is working fine when name is simple but when '&' is coming in term name it is not fetching category id.

e.g I have a term named "Website Development & Designing" under skills taxonomy and I am using following query to get its term id.

$value = "Website Development & Designing"
get_term_by('name',$value,'skills');

but it does not return term object :(

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The characters <, >, &, " and ' (less than, greater than, ampersand, double quote and single quote) are enconded in term names. & becomes &amp;. This is done by passing the term object to sanitize_term() function which applies several filters. By default WordPress applies theses filters: sanitize_text_field(), wp_filter_kses() and _wp_specialchars() (see wp-includes/default-filters.php), this last function encondes <, >, &, " and '.

So, you need to do:

$value = "Website Development &amp; Designing" get_term_by('name',$value,'skills');

Or, for unknown values:

get_term_by( 'name', esc_attr( $value ), 'skills');

NOTE: use esc_attr(), not _wp_specialchars() directly because _wp_specialchars() is marked as private function and it is not intended for use by plugin or theme developers.

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When you save special character in term, it is encoded as HTML entity. So the term name in database will look like Website Development &amp; Designing and you are querying Website Development & Designing

You can use esc_attr() to encode the special characters before passing it as a argument.

$value = esc_attr( 'Website Development & Designing' );
get_term_by('name', $value, 'skills');

Better I will suggest you to query terms by slug always. The name can be changed anytime and you need to update the code every time.

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