wp_insert_post() see api there seems to be no possibility to set the post slug / the post permalink of the new entry.
e.g. is there a way to check if:
a string is possible to use as post-slug, if not available return error.
post_name is the slug.
'post_name' => [ <string> ] // The name (slug) for your post
You'll need to query for a post with matching slug before inserting a new post, WordPress will just append a number to make it unique if there is a duplicate.