What we have for a project is:

  • multiple sites (production, test, local development);
  • migrated by multiple methods (PHPMyAdmin, Navicat, BackupBuddy);

And the issue we are having is that while original production site seems to work fine, rest of the installations are constantly plagued by text encoding issues.

Original site is configured with latin MySQL tables, but WP is configured and serves pages as UTF-8, which I was told (in our chat) is already problematic. Rest of sites (whose databases mostly mirrors original production site) display issues such as:

  • broken characters (correctable by tweaking WP encoding settings);
  • broken characters (not correctable by tweaking WP encoding settings);
  • site working fine, but feeding broken characters to external libraries.

Since I had tried to untangle this for a while and there isn't much info on diagnosing encoding issues in WP, my questions are following:

  1. How to reliably diagnose if site has encoding configuration issues, even if it might not display them under normal circumstances?

  2. Which rules should be formulated, put into documentation and enforced to prevent encoding issues on migration?

2 Answers 2


So after about a year (on and off!) I had managed to hopefully get a fix on encoding issue.

Why it breaks

What my experience boiled down to, is that encoding issue like this are mostly caused by miscommunication when moving data around.

  • in best case this is read mismatch, when correct data is wrongly interpreted
  • in worst case that is write mismatch, when data is incorrectly saved, causing waterfall of issues and various degrees of corruption down the line

Preemptive measures

The earliest you can screw up database encoding in WP is when creating database. So even before you even went to download that WP archive to install.

Do not rely on defaults and make sure that components talk in same encoding (like UTF8) internally, as well as to each other and visitors. This goes well beyond WP and involves MySQL configuration, possibly with some kicks for Apache and PHP on top.

See WordPress Database Charset and Collation Configuration


When the things are thoroughly broken you are up for a ton of pain figuring out what is wrong and how to get it back to normal.

I found mb_detect_encoding() highly useful. It's not a magic wand, but (in a strict mode) false return from it is good signal that things are not normal.

On WP-specific front $wpdb has encoding-related properties.

When you have a reason/guess/idea of what is wrong - drag data to safe place and try to convert data to be meaningfully normalized, see:


After doing a little searching on this problem, It's my understanding that the data is actually encoded in utf-8, but being handled like latin. You just need to trick it into reading it correctly with a little juggling.

Try this:

  1. Export the db in its current state, copy the dump file for backup.
  2. Create a new database usng utf-8.
  3. Change the character set in your sql dump file to utf-8.
  4. Import your data into your new database.

This should trick mysql into reading the data correctly. Apparently if you try to change the encoding when you export, you will get double encoded characters, as the data was already encoded in utf-8.

  • Yep, some manual juggling usually gets such fixed. I am more interested in larger overview - how to make sure this doesn't happen in first place. And if it did then how to diagnose it reliably and not struggle with randomly switching encodings until it works.
    – Rarst
    Jul 22, 2011 at 11:32
  • If you were to build a plugin that created a field in the database with latin characters, when you returned them, would they be double encoded? Jul 22, 2011 at 18:50
  • I am too sleepy to make an educated guess. But idea of sending some test data back and forth is very interesting. Will need to read up on encodings...
    – Rarst
    Jul 22, 2011 at 19:47

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