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I use a frontend form by @TheDeadMedic to post regular posts. I figured out how to add to this form a category and a location (custom taxonomy) dropdown menus, and also how to sanitize and how to validate them, and, finally, how to save the post with this new information. But I cannot save a second location input value as a post meta. I know about the add_post_meta() function, but I don't understand how to use it in the context of the mentioned frontend form. Any help?

My customized frontend form:

<?php
/*
 * Plugin Name: Submit From Front
 * Plugin URI: 
 * Description: This creates a form so that posts can be submitted from the front end.
 * Version: 0.1
 * Author: TheDeadMedic
 * Author URI: 
 * Text Domain: submit-from-front
 */

class WPSE_Submit_From_Front {
    const NONCE_VALUE = 'front_end_new_post';
    const NONCE_FIELD = 'fenp_nonce';

    protected $pluginPath;
    protected $pluginUrl;
    protected $errors = array();
    protected $data = array();

    function __construct() {
        $this->pluginPath = plugin_dir_path( __file__ );
        $this->pluginUrl  = plugins_url( '', __file__ );

        add_action( 'wp_enqueue_scripts', array( $this, 'addStyles' ) );
        add_shortcode( 'post_from_front', array( $this, 'shortcode' ) );
    }

    function addStyles() {
        //wp_enqueue_style( 'submitform-style', "$this->pluginUrl/submitfromfront.css" );
    }

    /**
     * Shortcodes should return data, NOT echo it.
     * 
     * @return string
     */
    function shortcode() {
        if ( ! current_user_can( 'publish_posts' ) )
            return sprintf( '<p>Please <a href="%s">login</a> to post adverts.</p>', esc_url( wp_login_url(  get_permalink() ) ) );
        elseif ( $this->handleForm() )
            return '<p class="success">Nice one, post created!</p>';
        else
            return $this->getForm();
    }

    /**
     * Process the form and return true if post successfully created.
     * 
     * @return bool
     */
    function handleForm() {
        if ( ! $this->isFormSubmitted() )
            return false;

        // http://php.net/manual/en/function.filter-input-array.php
        $data = filter_input_array( INPUT_POST, array(
            'postTitle'   => FILTER_DEFAULT,
            'postContent' => FILTER_DEFAULT,
            'postCategory' => FILTER_DEFAULT,
            'postLocation' => FILTER_DEFAULT,
            'postLocation2' => FILTER_DEFAULT,
        ));

        $data = wp_unslash( $data );
        $data = array_map( 'trim', $data );

        // You might also want to more aggressively sanitize these fields
        // By default WordPress will handle it pretty well, based on the current user's "unfiltered_html" capability

        $data['postTitle']   = sanitize_text_field( $data['postTitle'] );
        $data['postContent'] = wp_check_invalid_utf8( $data['postContent'] );
        $data['postCategory'] = sanitize_text_field( $data['postCategory'] );
        $data['postLocation'] = sanitize_text_field( $data['postLocation'] );
        $data['postLocation2'] = sanitize_text_field( $data['postLocation2'] );

        $this->data = $data;

        if ( ! $this->isNonceValid() )
            $this->errors[] = 'Security check failed, please try again.';

        if ( ! $data['postTitle'] )
            $this->errors[] = 'Please enter a title.';

        if ( ! $data['postContent'] )
            $this->errors[] = 'Please enter the content.';

        if ( ! $data['postCategory'] )
            $this->errors[] = 'Please select a category.';

        if ( ! $data['postLocation'] )
            $this->errors[] = 'Please select a location.';

        if ( ! $this->errors ) {
            $post_id = wp_insert_post( array(
                'post_title'   => $data['postTitle'],
                'post_content' => $data['postContent'],
                'post_category' => array( $data['postCategory'] ),
                'tax_input' => array('loc' => array( $data['postLocation'] )),
                'post_status'  => 'publish',
            ));

            if ( ! $post_id )
                $this->errors[] = 'Whoops, please try again.';
        } else {
            $post_id = 0;
        }

        return ( bool ) $post_id;
    }

    /**
     * Use output buffering to *return* the form HTML, not echo it.
     * 
     * @return string
     */
    function getForm() {
        ob_start();
        ?>

<div id ="frontpostform">
    <?php foreach ( $this->errors as $error ) : ?>

        <p class="error"><?php echo $error ?></p>

    <?php endforeach ?>

    <form id="formpost" method="post">
        <fieldset>
            <label for="postTitle">Post Title</label>
            <input type="text" name="postTitle" id="postTitle" value="<?php

                // "Sticky" field, will keep value from last POST if there were errors
                if ( isset( $this->data['postTitle'] ) )
                    echo esc_attr( $this->data['postTitle'] );

            ?>" />
        </fieldset>

        <fieldset>
            <label for="postContent">Content</label>
            <textarea name="postContent" id="postContent" rows="10" cols="35" ><?php

                if ( isset( $this->data['postContent'] ) )
                    echo esc_textarea( $this->data['postContent'] );

            ?></textarea>
        </fieldset>

        <!-- Category -->
        <fieldset>
            <label for="postCategory">Category</label>
            <select name="postCategory"> 
                <option value=""><?php echo esc_attr(__('Select Category')); ?></option>
                <?php
                $categories = get_categories( 'hide_empty=0' );
                foreach ($categories as $category) {
                    // keep post category value from last POST if there were errors
                    if ( isset( $this->data['postCategory'] ) && $this->data['postCategory'] == $category->cat_ID ) {
                       $option = '<option value="' . $category->cat_ID . '" selected="selected">';
                    } else {
                       $option = '<option value="' . $category->cat_ID . '">';
                    }
                    $option .= $category->cat_name;
                    $option .= ' ('.$category->category_count.')';
                    $option .= '</option>';
                    echo $option;
                }
                ?>
            </select>
        </fieldset>

        <!-- Location -->
        <fieldset>
            <label for="postLocation">Location</label>
            <select name="postLocation"> 
                <option value=""><?php echo esc_attr(__('Select Location')); ?></option>
                <?php
                $categories = get_terms( 'loc', 'hide_empty=0' );
                foreach ($categories as $category) {
                    if ( isset( $this->data['postLocation'] ) && $this->data['postLocation'] == $category->term_id ) {
                       $option = '<option value="' . $category->term_id . '" selected="selected">';
                    } else {
                       $option = '<option value="' . $category->term_id . '">';
                    }
                    $option .= $category->name;
                    $option .= ' ('.$category->count.')';
                    $option .= '</option>';
                    echo $option;
                }
                ?>
            </select>
        </fieldset>

        <!-- Second Location -->
        <fieldset>
            <label for="postLocation2">Location 2</label>
            <input type="text" name="postLocation2" id="postLocation2" value="<?php

                // "Sticky" field, will keep value from last POST if there were errors
                if ( isset( $this->data['postLocation2'] ) )
                    echo esc_attr( $this->data['postLocation2'] );

            ?>" />
        </fieldset>

        <fieldset>
            <button type="submit" name="submitForm" >Create Post</button>
        </fieldset>

        <?php wp_nonce_field( self::NONCE_VALUE , self::NONCE_FIELD ) ?>
    </form>
</div>

        <?php
        return ob_get_clean();
    }

    /**
     * Has the form been submitted?
     * 
     * @return bool
     */
    function isFormSubmitted() {
        return isset( $_POST['submitForm'] );
    }

    /**
     * Is the nonce field valid?
     * 
     * @return bool
     */
    function isNonceValid() {
        return isset( $_POST[ self::NONCE_FIELD ] ) && wp_verify_nonce( $_POST[ self::NONCE_FIELD ], self::NONCE_VALUE );
    }
}

new WPSE_Submit_From_Front;
0

Because the $post_id variable will return the ID of the new post, it was sufficient to change the line:

$post_id = add_post_meta($post_id, 'location2', $data['postLocation2']);

to:

add_post_meta($post_id, 'location2', $data['postLocation2']);

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