The newer versions of WordPress, and possibly older ones, open an attachment details modal window when an image is selected in the media library. Is there a way that I can open this modal on a different admin page if I know the attachment's ID? Specifically, can I click a button and have the modal window open?
Unfortunately the logic of the attachment details isn't made to be used standalone - it requires the grid that opens it. You can however use the get_media_item( attachment_id ) method to receive the HTML of the form for modifying images: https://developer.wordpress.org/reference/functions/get_media_item/