In essence, your question boils down to "How do I display third-party data via a shortcode?" It's a frequent task that a large number of WordPress developers encounter at one time or another over the course of their career, and the solution is simple: combine the Shortcode API with a mechanism that retrieves the 3rd-party data and wrap it all up in a plugin.
That's really all there is to it. If the 3rd-party data changes infrequently, you may wish to cache it with the Transients API, or maybe just download it the first time and store it alongside relevant posts using the Metadata API and store binary data as an attachment.
It can be as simple and straightforward or complicated and efficient as you want it to be, and there are many ways to accomplish the same tasks. The Codex is always a good place to start, as is searching the web for relevant blog posts and tutorials.
To increase your chances of receiving constructive answers, conduct ample research before asking a question, phrase it in a manner that makes it clear you are addressing WordPress functionality specifically, and generalize it as much as possible to apply to the largest possible audience.