I would like to be able to show 5 columns and only 10 images per page for the default WordPress image gallery. Visually I would imagine it to look something like the following:
How do I go about achieving this?
You could try this plugin: https://wordpress.org/plugins/wp-pagination/
For my projects i always started to build galleries using custom post types or repeaterfields with acf: http://www.advancedcustomfields.com/add-ons/repeater-field/
Wordpress built in gallery function is... well almost unfunctional. :)