3 Updated answer code with updated code from question.
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I put one javascript file in the header.php file and that page that uses that file works (the home page)

Don't do that. Use wp_enqueue_script() instead.

You can use conditional tags to load scripts and styles in the desired locations. For example, to check if a particular page template is being used, you'd use is_page_template().

Scripts and styles can be registered on the wp_loaded hook, then enqueued on the wp_enqueue_scripts hook:

// Register scripts/styles. They can be optionally enqueued later on.
add_action( 'wp_loaded', 'wpse248829_register_scripts' );
function wpse248829_register_scripts() {
    wp_register_script( 'something'character-counter-script-js', get_template_directory_uri() . '/js/somethingchar-counter.min.js', array( 'jquery' ), false, true );
    wp_register_script( 'something-else'tweet-js'counter', get_template_directory_uri() . '/js/somethingtweet-elsecounter.min.js', array( 'jquery' ), false, true );
    wp_register_script( 'another'title-somethingtag-elsecounter-js'script', get_template_directory_uri() . '/char-counter/js/anothertitle-somethingtag.min.js', array( 'jquery' ), false, true );
    wp_register_script( 'description-elsecounter-script', get_template_directory_uri() . '/js/description-tag.min.js', array( 'jquery' ), false, true );
}

// Enqueue scripts/styles.
add_action( 'wp_enqueue_scripts', 'wpse248829_enqueue_scripts' );
function wpse248829_enqueue_scripts() {
    // Load everywhere.
    wp_enqueue_style( 'style', get_stylesheet_uri() );

    // Probably not needed, because it was already specified as a dependency.
    // wp_enqueue_script( 'something-js''jquery' );

    // Only enqueue scripts/styles on static front page.
    if ( is_front_page() ) {
        wp_enqueue_script( 'something'character-elsecounter-script-js' );
    }

    //if Only( enqueueis_page_template( scripts/styles'tweet-template.php' when) the) full{
        wp_enqueue_script( 'tweet-width.phpcounter' template);
 is used.  }

    if ( is_page_template( 'full'title-widthtag-template.php' ) ) {
        wp_enqueue_script( 'another'title-somethingtag-elsecounter-js'script' );
    }

    if ( is_page_template( 'description-tag-template.php' ) ) {
        wp_enqueue_script( 'description-counter-script' );
    }
}

I put one javascript file in the header.php file and that page that uses that file works (the home page)

Don't do that. Use wp_enqueue_script() instead.

You can use conditional tags to load scripts and styles in the desired locations. For example, to check if a particular page template is being used, you'd use is_page_template().

Scripts and styles can be registered on the wp_loaded hook, then enqueued on the wp_enqueue_scripts hook:

// Register scripts/styles. They can be optionally enqueued later on.
add_action( 'wp_loaded', 'wpse248829_register_scripts' );
function wpse248829_register_scripts() {
    wp_register_script( 'something-js', get_template_directory_uri() . '/js/something.js', array( 'jquery' ), true );
    wp_register_script( 'something-else-js', get_template_directory_uri() . '/js/something-else.js', array(), true );
    wp_register_script( 'another-something-else-js', get_template_directory_uri() . '/js/another-something-else.js', array(), true );
}

// Enqueue scripts/styles.
add_action( 'wp_enqueue_scripts', 'wpse248829_enqueue_scripts' );
function wpse248829_enqueue_scripts() {
    // Load everywhere.
    wp_enqueue_script( 'something-js' );

    // Only enqueue scripts/styles on static front page.
    if ( is_front_page() ) {
        wp_enqueue_script( 'something-else-js' );
    }

    // Only enqueue scripts/styles when the full-width.php template is used.
    if ( is_page_template( 'full-width.php' ) ) {
        wp_enqueue_script( 'another-something-else-js' );
    }
}

I put one javascript file in the header.php file and that page that uses that file works (the home page)

Don't do that. Use wp_enqueue_script() instead.

You can use conditional tags to load scripts and styles in the desired locations. For example, to check if a particular page template is being used, you'd use is_page_template().

Scripts and styles can be registered on the wp_loaded hook, then enqueued on the wp_enqueue_scripts hook:

// Register scripts/styles. They can be optionally enqueued later on.
add_action( 'wp_loaded', 'wpse248829_register_scripts' );
function wpse248829_register_scripts() {
    wp_register_script( 'character-counter-script-js', get_template_directory_uri() . '/js/char-counter.min.js', array( 'jquery' ), false, true );
    wp_register_script( 'tweet-counter', get_template_directory_uri() . '/js/tweet-counter.min.js', array( 'jquery' ), false, true );
    wp_register_script( 'title-tag-counter-script', get_template_directory_uri() . '/char-counter/js/title-tag.min.js', array( 'jquery' ), false, true );
    wp_register_script( 'description-counter-script', get_template_directory_uri() . '/js/description-tag.min.js', array( 'jquery' ), false, true );
}

// Enqueue scripts/styles.
add_action( 'wp_enqueue_scripts', 'wpse248829_enqueue_scripts' );
function wpse248829_enqueue_scripts() {
    // Load everywhere.
    wp_enqueue_style( 'style', get_stylesheet_uri() );

    // Probably not needed, because it was already specified as a dependency.
    // wp_enqueue_script( 'jquery' );

    // Only enqueue scripts/styles on static front page.
    if ( is_front_page() ) {
        wp_enqueue_script( 'character-counter-script-js' );
    }

    if ( is_page_template( 'tweet-template.php' ) ) {
        wp_enqueue_script( 'tweet-counter' );
    }

    if ( is_page_template( 'title-tag-template.php' ) ) {
        wp_enqueue_script( 'title-tag-counter-script' );
    }

    if ( is_page_template( 'description-tag-template.php' ) ) {
        wp_enqueue_script( 'description-counter-script' );
    }
}
2 Add note about wp_enqueue_script()
source | link

I put one javascript file in the header.php file and that page that uses that file works (the home page)

Don't do that. Use wp_enqueue_script() instead.

You can use conditional tags to load scripts and styles in the desired locations. For example, to check if a particular page template is being used, you'd use is_page_template().

Scripts and styles can be registered on the wp_loaded hook, then enqueued on the wp_enqueue_scripts hook:

// Register scripts/styles. They can be optionally enqueued later on.
add_action( 'wp_loaded', 'wpse248829_register_scripts' );
function wpse248829_register_scripts() {
    wp_register_script( 'something-js', get_template_directory_uri() . '/js/something.js', array( 'jquery' ), true );
    wp_register_script( 'something-else-js', get_template_directory_uri() . '/js/something-else.js', array(), true );
    wp_register_script( 'another-something-else-js', get_template_directory_uri() . '/js/another-something-else.js', array(), true );
}

// Enqueue scripts/styles.
add_action( 'wp_enqueue_scripts', 'wpse248829_enqueue_scripts' );
function wpse248829_enqueue_scripts() {
    // Load everywhere.
    wp_enqueue_script( 'something-js' );

    // Only enqueue scripts/styles on static front page.
    if ( is_front_page() ) {
        wp_enqueue_script( 'something-else-js' );
    }

    // Only enqueue scripts/styles when the full-width.php template is used.
    if ( is_page_template( 'full-width.php' ) ) {
        wp_enqueue_script( 'another-something-else-js' );
    }
}

You can use conditional tags to load scripts and styles in the desired locations. For example, to check if a particular page template is being used, you'd use is_page_template().

Scripts and styles can be registered on the wp_loaded hook, then enqueued on the wp_enqueue_scripts hook:

// Register scripts/styles. They can be optionally enqueued later on.
add_action( 'wp_loaded', 'wpse248829_register_scripts' );
function wpse248829_register_scripts() {
    wp_register_script( 'something-js', get_template_directory_uri() . '/js/something.js', array( 'jquery' ), true );
    wp_register_script( 'something-else-js', get_template_directory_uri() . '/js/something-else.js', array(), true );
    wp_register_script( 'another-something-else-js', get_template_directory_uri() . '/js/another-something-else.js', array(), true );
}

// Enqueue scripts/styles.
add_action( 'wp_enqueue_scripts', 'wpse248829_enqueue_scripts' );
function wpse248829_enqueue_scripts() {
    // Load everywhere.
    wp_enqueue_script( 'something-js' );

    // Only enqueue scripts/styles on static front page.
    if ( is_front_page() ) {
        wp_enqueue_script( 'something-else-js' );
    }

    // Only enqueue scripts/styles when the full-width.php template is used.
    if ( is_page_template( 'full-width.php' ) ) {
        wp_enqueue_script( 'another-something-else-js' );
    }
}

I put one javascript file in the header.php file and that page that uses that file works (the home page)

Don't do that. Use wp_enqueue_script() instead.

You can use conditional tags to load scripts and styles in the desired locations. For example, to check if a particular page template is being used, you'd use is_page_template().

Scripts and styles can be registered on the wp_loaded hook, then enqueued on the wp_enqueue_scripts hook:

// Register scripts/styles. They can be optionally enqueued later on.
add_action( 'wp_loaded', 'wpse248829_register_scripts' );
function wpse248829_register_scripts() {
    wp_register_script( 'something-js', get_template_directory_uri() . '/js/something.js', array( 'jquery' ), true );
    wp_register_script( 'something-else-js', get_template_directory_uri() . '/js/something-else.js', array(), true );
    wp_register_script( 'another-something-else-js', get_template_directory_uri() . '/js/another-something-else.js', array(), true );
}

// Enqueue scripts/styles.
add_action( 'wp_enqueue_scripts', 'wpse248829_enqueue_scripts' );
function wpse248829_enqueue_scripts() {
    // Load everywhere.
    wp_enqueue_script( 'something-js' );

    // Only enqueue scripts/styles on static front page.
    if ( is_front_page() ) {
        wp_enqueue_script( 'something-else-js' );
    }

    // Only enqueue scripts/styles when the full-width.php template is used.
    if ( is_page_template( 'full-width.php' ) ) {
        wp_enqueue_script( 'another-something-else-js' );
    }
}
1
source | link

You can use conditional tags to load scripts and styles in the desired locations. For example, to check if a particular page template is being used, you'd use is_page_template().

Scripts and styles can be registered on the wp_loaded hook, then enqueued on the wp_enqueue_scripts hook:

// Register scripts/styles. They can be optionally enqueued later on.
add_action( 'wp_loaded', 'wpse248829_register_scripts' );
function wpse248829_register_scripts() {
    wp_register_script( 'something-js', get_template_directory_uri() . '/js/something.js', array( 'jquery' ), true );
    wp_register_script( 'something-else-js', get_template_directory_uri() . '/js/something-else.js', array(), true );
    wp_register_script( 'another-something-else-js', get_template_directory_uri() . '/js/another-something-else.js', array(), true );
}

// Enqueue scripts/styles.
add_action( 'wp_enqueue_scripts', 'wpse248829_enqueue_scripts' );
function wpse248829_enqueue_scripts() {
    // Load everywhere.
    wp_enqueue_script( 'something-js' );

    // Only enqueue scripts/styles on static front page.
    if ( is_front_page() ) {
        wp_enqueue_script( 'something-else-js' );
    }

    // Only enqueue scripts/styles when the full-width.php template is used.
    if ( is_page_template( 'full-width.php' ) ) {
        wp_enqueue_script( 'another-something-else-js' );
    }
}