I am trying to recover some code I had several months ago (I have backups of everything). It was part of a text widget in my WordPress sidebar.
If I have the full backup, where can I find that code? I can't seem to find that folder.
The widget settings (as well as plenty of other stuff) are stored in MySQL database. Actual files are mostly PHP code that runs the show, WordPress uses next to none manipulating files.
So to recover those you will need to look in backup of your database as well as some code to make sense of values (widget settings are complex and probably stored in in database in serialized form).