I was unable to understand if that refers to the frontend or the backend?
The backend could be managed by rearranging the metaboxes with the specific content, you can even move the publishing box on the right to the big area on the left.
For the frontend, you'll probably need to design an extra page template that lists posts if it is a single page (you mentioned 'thumbnail' already) so that a page lists several posts with whatever you need from some query, identically to index.php.
If you want to restructure the default single post view, then create a template
single.php (or edit the existing one, should your theme inherits that) and construct the HTML markup as needed, in the order and number of fields required.
See the Template Hierarchy link for better understanding of the template calling order.