Is there any to edit and/or create wordpress pages from my local environment? Or shall I use the wordpress editor no matter what?
What do you mean by create a page in localhost? You can create pages easily. Do you mean that you want to view the page in localhost? If that is your aim, then you have to run the index.php in the root folder. Not he one in the themes folder. When I make WordPress site, I like to download a naked theme and use it as a skeleton. My favorite is Starkers Naked theme
From my view, I avoid using the wp editor at all. It doesn't offer all the good things a IDE can provide.
If you have a local server running, you probably can access it. For example, in linux its usally on
You can also use a IDE and push the modifications via ssh or ftp to your remote.
Without more details on your local environment, I can only suggest reading this: