It looks like the author image section of the User Profile editor was from the "Author Image" plugin. I didn't suspect that at first because I didn't know that plugins were allowed to modify that screen, so I thought it was just a build-in Wordpress function and that the plugin just allowed for easy display.
As it doesn't look like the plugin has a settings page I ended up just modifying the plugin itself. For those curious, the file to modify is
sem-author-image-admin.php and the variable is about 3/4 of the way down, just search for the comment
// Set a maximum height and width and you'll find it. (There's no guarantee that this will remain the same in future versions and upgrading the plugin will most likely break this, just an FYI)