Is there a template which I can use for themes which I want to submit to the wordpress themes directory? A naked template which hits the standards of the Wordpress Themes Directory and which I could use as base for developping new themes would be great. Is there maybe an official "naked" theme which can be used for that?
If you're looking for standards, you want to make sure you look at TwentyTen and TwentyEleven - those are included with Wordpress and written by the core developers.
It doesn't get anymore "standard" :-)
But in terms of guidelines - this is the best place to look for official rules: http://codex.wordpress.org/Theme_Development
Frameworks are there to help speed things up and get your project done. But none of theme will cover all of your needs.
Try a few out - see if one works for you. If not then just grab the html5boiler plate and start from there.
I think what you are looking for is a Framework.
Here are a couple of good ones:
If you are looking for something a bit simpler check out this post: http://speckyboy.com/2010/03/22/10-blanknaked-wordpress-themes-perfect-for-development/